Glycerylphytate crosslinker as a potential osteoinductor of chitosan-based systems for guided bone regeneration

Chitosan-based membranes are promising systems for guided bone regeneration. In this work, we used glycerylphytate as ionic crosslinker and osteinductor compound for the fabrication of chitosan membranes as supports for human mesenchymal stem cells. Three different glycerylphytate-crosslinked membranes were developed by changing the crosslinker concentration, from 2.5–10 wt-%, respect to chitosan. Physico-chemical characterization in terms of composition, morphology, and thermal behavior was further analyzed. Swelling degree, crosslinking density, and crosslinker release showed a glycerylphytate content-dependent behavior. Glycerylphytate suggested to improve osteointegration ability of chitosan surfaces by the formation of apatite-like aggregates after incubation in body simulated fluid. Stem cells cultured on the membranes increased their viability over time, and the incorporation of glycerylphytate improved osteogenic and osteoinductivity potential of chitosan by increasing calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity on cultured stem cells. These results demonstrated a potential application of glycerylphytate-crosslinked chitosan systems for promising bone tissue regeneration.

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