Antibacterial Bio-Based Polymers for Cranio-Maxillofacial Regeneration Applications

Cranio-maxillofacial structure is a region of particular interest in the field of regenerative medicine due to both its anatomical complexity and the numerous abnormalities affecting this area. However, this anatomical complexity is what makes possible the coexistence of different microbial ecosystems in the oral cavity and the maxillofacial region, contributing to the increased risk of bacterial infections. In this regard, different materials have been used for their application in this field. These materials can be obtained from natural and renewable feedstocks, or by synthetic routes with desired mechanical properties, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity. Hence, in this review, we have focused on bio-based polymers which, by their own nature, by chemical modifications of their structure, or by their combination with other elements, provide a useful antibacterial activity as well as the suitable conditions for cranio-maxillofacial tissue regeneration. This approach has not been reviewed previously, and we have specifically arranged the content of this article according to the resulting material and its corresponding application; we review guided bone regeneration membranes, bone cements and devices and scaffolds for both soft and hard maxillofacial tissue regeneration, including hybrid scaffolds, dental implants, hydrogels and composites.

Martín-del-Campo, M., Fernández-Villa, D., Cabrera-Rueda, G. & Rojo, L. Antibacterial Bio-Based Polymers for Cranio-Maxillofacial Regeneration Applications. Applied Sciences 10, 8371 (2020). Cite

Micro-structured 3D-electrospun scaffolds of biodegradable block copolymers for soft tissue regeneration

The present article describes the application of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) mesh as template for the preparation of micro-structured fibres mat by electrospinning of biodegradable triblock copolymers based on polylactic acid and poly(butylene succinate/azelate) random copolymer. These copolymers present and excellent controlled biodegradation process in physiological conditions, with interesting applications in targeting and controlled release of different drugs.

After the application of the poly(ethylene terephthalate) mesh in the electrospinning process, the detachment of the template provides a specific oriented microfibres mat, that affect to the adhesion and proliferation of cell seeded on the networks. In addition, the microfibres mats were loaded with dexamethasone as anti-inflammatory drug. The release of the drug takes place in a controlled relative short period due to the formation of drug crystals on the surface of the fibres during the electrospinning process. This issue can be restrained by acting on the triblock copolymer composition, improving the drug-polymer compatibility. Copolymerization also allows the modulation of the biodegradation rate. The biodegradable scaffolds under investigation can be therefore considered very promising for regenerative medicine and soft tissue engineering.

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